Why fast 2-5 days prior to our procedures? It induces autophagy: Sorry - this next part is a bit tough to read but...
With age, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) lose their ability to regenerate the blood, muscle, skeletal, and nervous systems, and promote disease development. Autophagy is associated with health and longevity, and is critical for protecting MSCs from metabolic stress. Loss of autophagy in MSCs causes accumulation of mitochondria and an activated metabolic state, which drives accelerated myeloid differentiation mainly through epigenetic deregulations, and impairs MSC self-renewal activity and regenerative potential. Strikingly, the majority of MSCs in aged mice share these altered metabolic and functional features. However, ~ 1/3 of aged MSCs exhibit high autophagy levels and maintain a low metabolic state with robust long-term regeneration potential similar to healthy young MSCs. Results demonstrate that autophagy actively suppresses MSC metabolism by clearing active, healthy mitochondria to maintain quiescence and stemness, and becomes increasingly necessary with age to preserve the regenerative capacity of old MSCs.
Why we use adipose (fat derived) stem cells instead of bone marrow: Each study was funded by grants from the US Nation Institutes of Health. This first study really important if you are over 40.
"Bone marrow-derived stem cells having impaired proliferation, senescence, and chondrogenic response, whereas muscle-derived stem cells and adipose-derived stem cells exhibited no negative effects..."